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Illustration depicting the warming of the last 50 years.
Photo Credit: NASA/GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio
This illustration depicts the warming that scientists have determined has occurred in West Antarctica during the last 50 years, with the dark red showing the area that has warmed the most. The NSF-funded study was recently published in the journal "Nature."

No longer the exception

New study: Antarctica has been warming at a rate comparable to rest of the world

Scientists studying climate change have long believed that while most of the globe has been getting steadily warmer, a large part of Antarctica — the East Antarctic Ice Sheet — has actually been getting colder.

But new research shows that for the last 50 years, much of Antarctica has been warming at a rate comparable to the rest of the world. In fact, the warming in West Antarctica is greater than the cooling in East Antarctica, meaning that on average the continent has gotten warmer, said Eric Steig, a University of Washington (UW) External Non-U.S. government site professor of Earth and space sciences and director of the Quaternary Research Center External Non-U.S. government site at the UW.

“West Antarctica is a very different place than East Antarctica, and there is a physical barrier, the Transantarctic Mountains, that separates the two,” said Steig, lead author of a paper documenting the warming published in the Jan. 22 edition of Nature.

For years, it was believed that a relatively small area known as the Antarctic Peninsula was getting warmer, but that the rest of the continent — including West Antarctica, the ice sheet most susceptible to potential future collapse — was cooling.

Steig noted that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with an average elevation of about 6,000 feet above sea level, is substantially lower than East Antarctica, which has an average elevation of more than 10,000 feet. While the entire continent is essentially a desert, West Antarctica is subject to relatively warm, moist storms and receives much greater snowfall than East Antarctica.

The study found that warming in West Antarctica exceeded one-tenth of a degree Celsius per decade for the last 50 years and more than offset the cooling in East Antarctica.

Co-authors of the paper are David Schneider of the National Center for Atmospheric Research External Non-U.S. government site in Boulder, Colo., a former student of Steig’s; Scott Rutherford of Roger Williams University External Non-U.S. government site in Bristol, R.I.; Michael Mann of Pennsylvania State University External Non-U.S. government site; Josefino Comiso of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center External U.S. government site in Greenbelt, Md.; and Drew Shindell of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies External U.S. government site in New York City. The work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation External U.S. government site.

The researchers devised a statistical technique that uses data from satellites and from Antarctic weather stations to make a new estimate of temperature trends.

“While other interpolations had been done previously, no one had really taken advantage of the satellite data, which provide crucial information about spatial patterns of temperature change,” Steig said.

Satellites calculate the surface temperature by measuring the intensity of infrared light radiated by the snowpack, and they have the advantage of covering the entire continent. However, they have only been in operation for 25 years. On the other hand, a number of Antarctic weather stations have been in place since 1957, the International Geophysical Year, but virtually all of them are within a short distance of the coast and so provide no direct information about conditions in the continent’s interior.

The scientists found temperature measurements from weather stations corresponded closely with satellite data for overlapping time periods. That allowed them to use the satellite data as a guide to deduce temperatures in areas of the continent without weather stations.

“Simple explanations don’t capture the complexity of climate,” Steig said. “The thing you hear all the time is that Antarctica is cooling and that’s not the case. If anything it’s the reverse, but it’s more complex than that. Antarctica isn’t warming at the same rate everywhere, and while some areas have been cooling for a long time the evidence shows the continent as a whole is getting warmer.”

A major reason most of Antarctica was thought to be cooling is because of a hole in the Earth’s protective ozone layer that appears during the spring months in the Southern Hemisphere’s polar region. Steig noted that it is well established that the ozone hole has contributed to cooling in East Antarctica.

“We still believe ozone depletion can increase wind speeds around Antarctica, further isolating the interior,” NASA’s Shindell said in a separate press release. “But it’s clear now that it’s not such a dominant influence on temperature trends.”

Noted Steig, “In any case, efforts to repair the ozone layer eventually will begin taking effect and the hole could be eliminated by the middle of this century. If that happens, all of Antarctica could begin warming on a par with the rest of the world.”  

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Curator: Peter Rejcek, Antarctic Support Contract | NSF Official: Winifred Reuning, Division of Polar Programs